Novodobe fortifikace Vol.
|Fortress Verdun, Part 2
Marcus Massing (Germany)
In the next part of the article about the Verdun fortress you can
find the completion of the chapter about the armour elements of
the fortress. A brief description of the main types of the rotary
retractable turrets, constructed by captain Galopin is also included.
These turrets had proved their resistance just on this fortress
and so they were also used in a slightly upgraded form on the Maginot
Line thirty years later. After this more technical part of the article
a brief description of the history of the struggles for the fortress
during W.W.I. is presented. The description is set in wider context
of events on the western front and it includes a short evaluation
of the importance of the Verdun fortifications in battle. The article
is illustrated by photographs and plans of some objects and it contains
detailed map, in which there are over 60 important fortification
objects (including an overview of their main artillery armament)
marked on a current map background. We hope that you find this map
useful during your visit of the fortress.
|Half uploaded rotary turret for two 75cm
guns, fort Chana.
Photo by Rainer Reiter 1999.
Downloaded with author's permission
from site http://members.surfeu.at/RReiter/
|Polygonal Fortress Torun
Wojciech Szymanski, Mariusz Wojciechowski (Poland)
The city of Torun, today on the Polish territory, was always a
strategically important place, especially during the new ages. It
is not surprising that at dependence on the frequent military conflicts
in this area the city was continually fortified and finally a continuous
line of artillery forts surrounded it. The article does not describe
the whole fortress, after an opening dealing with the bastion fortifications
of the city it mainly concentrates on the process of fortifying
the core of the fortress in the 19th century when Torun used to
be part of the Prussian kingdom. The article describes lucidly all
the elements of the core and its detached parts - how they were
built, modernised and finally knocked down.
The second part of the article will serve you as a practical guide
over the preserved remains of the bastion and forts in case you
decide to visit this city (placed on the Visla river), which is
worth attention not only because of its fortifications. The article
is well illustrated by perfect plans by Mariusz Wojciechowski.
Entrance into the St. James caserne.
Photo by Mariusz Wojciechowski 2000.
|Fortress Port Arthur During The Russian-Japanese War, Part 1
Martin Dubanek (Czech)
Today, the fortifications of the Port Arthur harbour in the eastern
part of Asia are only remains of the superpower position of the
tsarist Russia. Its seizing by Japanese during the Russian-Japanese
war was a sign of Russia's crisis and on the contrary of the rising
power of Japan, which was to become a new Asian superpower. In addition
to this the battle, waged in the mountainous terrain fortified by
more or less finished fortification objects, revealed the importance
of fortifications in the defence of isolated naval bases and it
gave valuable experience to the fortification engineering on the
eve of the first world war. Regardless of the failure of the defenders
it was an example of an excellent and long-lasting defence of fortification.
The first part of the article describes the history of the fortress
until the commencing of the conflict and the state of its fortifications
mainly. The eastern front of the fortress as the place of the most
severe fights is described in particular detail. The article is
illustrated by archive photographs and pictures of the current state
of the fortifications and it contains a number of lucid maps.
Open posts of artillery battery for guns
caliber 15cm on the top wall of Fort IV.
Photo by Masahiro Yamana 1999.
|The Filter-ventilation of The Czechoslovakian Infantry Casemates,
Jan Pavel (Czech)
The second part of the article describes thoroughly the distribution
of air in the inner rooms of the objects and the exhaust of air
from the object using exhaustion ventilators or natural overpressure.
The author concentrates mainly on the development of this system,
which had undergone great changes during almost three years of the
heavy fortifications' construction. He describes the oldest and
the newest varieties and also various temporary types. Apart from
ventilation in the infantry blocks he mentions its specific solution
in independent artillery observation blocks and in blocks of "Arabian"
resistance class (means smaller casemates or blocks built especially
in the forests and usually equiped only with machine-guns). In the
end the author briefly evaluates the state of completion of the
independent heavy objects' filter-ventilation systems and their
following fortunes. The article is supplied by plans and photographs.
The oldest type of ventilation system
- pipes for exhausted air are placed up to the main loopholes.
Casemate MO-S 11.
Photo by Jan Pavel 1993.