Novodobe fortifikace Vol. 2 (1999)

German fortifications against Czechoslovakia in Bavaria

It is quite well known that even such an agressive state as the nazi Germany secured its own borders with stable fortifications (no matter if for a real purpose or just propaganda). Whereas there has been many information published about fortificaions on the western border or on former Polish frontier, we think that there is a very interesting information hidden to most readers, that the Germans had fortified the border with Czechoslovakia too. The article deals with the Bavarian - Czech border line, using K. Burke's book about German fortifications on the east and authors' own terrain research as the main sources. The article gives basic information about the origin, short history and an inglorious end of this fortification. In addition to that there is a detailed description of the construction of the pill-boxes, number of photographs and plans including a detailed map, allowing the reader to find at least few of the pill-boxes of this line hard to find in terrain.

pill-box A1, armoured table
Armoured board 10P7 with loophole for MG (thickness 6 cm). Pill-box A1, sector Ahornberg.
Photo by J. Pavel 1999.



Fortification of Helsinki

We appreciate very much that in the second issue we are able to bring you an article by a foreign author, dealing with the research on Russian fortifications in Finland. This topic is certainly exotic for a Middle-Europian, but we think it is interesting too. You might be surprised how large, thorough and certainly financially demanding fortifications had been built for protection of a strategic harbor by the imperial Russia, which was not exactly an industry superpower. The aim of this article at the first place is to acquaint the reader with the history and the whole form of the coastal and inland fortifications, protecting the city of Helsinki against a naval and land attack. For a better orientation the article is supplied with two maps and a number of photographs. The reader can also find an information about the current condition, usage and activities aimed at partial preserving of this interesting relic of the fortification architecture.

armoured cupola for observation
Armoured cupola for observation (Helsinki).
Photo by J. Lagerstedt.



Espionage against the Czechoslovakian fortifications

The tries of the German intelligence to obtain information about Czechoslovakian fortifications were huge and there has been a lot of materials published about them. But usually these were works about specific cases and fates of their participants. The author of this article wants to acquaint the reader briefly with the technical and organizational part of the intelligence activity. The article contains basic information about those organizational parts of the German intelligence which took part in this activity, a list of methods used to gather information and their results. There is also a note on activities of Czechoslovakian offices to prevent this danger. As the main source the article uses a non.published work of attorney JUDr. Frantisek Vaska, who deals with this problem for years. To show the results of the German intelligence the article is supplied with espionage photographs, reproduction of the drafts and a German map of fortifications near Králíky.

K-S 18, German fancy
German idea of infantry casemate K-S 18 "U kostela" near village Dolni Borikovice, East Bohemia.




Fort XI "Dunkowiczki" of the Przemysl fortress

Although according to the historical events there are no larger examples of the fort type of fortifying on Czech land's territory, there is a number of interesting sites from this era not far from our borders, in the territory of nowadays Poland. One of them is the Austro-Hungarian fortress Przemysl. The article deals only with one fort of the fortress. But this one is exceptionally interesting, because it went through a large modernization, during which a number of progressive technical solutions had been realized, mainly concerning the building of the artillery turrets. At first place the artillery traditors (blocks) with their armoured half-cupolas for cannons have exceeded the similar constructions of the famous French fortifications. Czech reader might be pleased by the fact that these armoured elements are products of the Skoda factories in Pilsen. As well as technical parametres the author doesn't forget about the description of the fights in which the fort played an important role. Of course the article is supplied with plans.

plan of fort Dunkowiczki
Plan of fort Dunkowiczki after modernization.