Novodobe fortifikace Vol. 1 (1999)

Armoured cupolas of Miedzyrzecz Fortified Front (now situated in Poland)

Probably the most interesting section of German fortifications takes place in the plain landscape of Western Poland (Lubusko). Originally it was called O.W.B. (die Festungfront Oder - Warthe - Bogen) and it's unique character consists in the fact that it is mainly composed of big infantry blocks, so called "panzerwerks". Their weapons were mainly placed in armoured cupolas. The article deals with the armoured cupolas and other armoured elements placed in the blocks´ roof desks. The text describes theire technical parametres and details of use on the specific blocks' types. Plans and photos of all 14 types of the armoured elements used on O.W.B, plans of 4 more cupolas that were planned for these fortifications and schemes of 13 blocks with dislocation of the cupolas are also added to the article. There is also information about those armoured elements which remained till nowaday.

PzW 716
A look at the ceiling of PzW 716, block with all weapons in cupolas. ("Central" fortress.)
Photo by J. Pavel 1998.



Artillery observation in the Orlicke mountains (The Czech Republic)

Never before has there been a work published in Czech literature, that would deal with the system of artillery fortresses' observation in all its aspects. The reason might be that there had been no fights for our fortresses. This article tries to give some new information. In addition to observation points in fortress blocks it describes field observation points of the fortress "Hanicka" and their planned use. For the first time there is the description of a concrete observation point, which had been built by the crew of the fortress itself. A unique pillbox is presented here by a plan and a photo. The article is also including a plan of the fortified sector between the artillery fortresses "Adam" and "Hanicka", a plan of heavy observation block, a list of all field observation points of "Hanicka" and a description of their location and crews.

R-S 91
Detached artillery observation block R-S-91 (fortress Hanicka). 1938.



Krakow Fortress (Poland)

Austro-Hungarian fortress is the theme of another article, taking a brief look at the development of the fortress, from the first earth walls in the middle of the 19th century, to the construction of the huge armoured forts with revolving artillery turrets. The intentions of the author were mainly to help the reader to orientate in the very complicated typology of Austrian forts, which had often been rebuilt and modernized according to the development of the political situation and financial possibilities. The article is also a good prolog to the study of the large ammount of literature about specific forts existing in Poland. The article also includes plans of some types of the forts and some components of the forts.

Jeden z objektu fortu
Barracks of fort 49 1/4 Grebalow.
Photo by M. Dubanek 1997.




Fortifications in Finland - Salpa line

There aren't many fortified lines so far away from the centre of Europe as the Salpa line in Finland. This line was built during the WWII to substitute the destroyed Mannerheim line, where the nation of Finland had fought a heroic, altough beforehead lost war against the communistic collossus. The article describes the construction, the course, the equipment and the technical solution of the Salpa line, built in a hostile northern landscape. It might be surprising for the readers to realize how large and strong fortifications were built there. The article is complemented with photos, plans of the blocks and information about museums accesible to public.

maskovany zvon
Camouflage of a dome on one of the Salpa-line objects.
Photo by Tomas Setina.